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... of the two federal tiers and the Länder executives within the Bundesrat play a major role in making joint decisions. They are forced to make decisions in the ‘joint-decision mode’ (Politikverflechtung) ...
... and consequences of, U.S. legislation known as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”). Thanks to FATCA, financial institutions around the world have been forced into a sphere of global control. ...
... - and judicial praxis - that subsidiarity is constitutionally underenforced, and supposedly rightly so since it is but a political rule, either non- justiciable or very marginally. I will argue that subsidiarity ...
... Conference and the Conference of the Regions - and in the promotion of a reinforced synergy between these latter and the Conference of the Presidents of Regional Councils.  ...
5. Federal Reform II in Germany
(Dominic Heinz/Note)
... stronger Länder forced weaker Länder either to accept the new debt regime suggested primarily by the federal government, forcing Bund and Länder to uphold balanced budgets until 2020 or to be responsible ...
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