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... activism with a newly developed “strength index” that measures possible reverberations of decisions made by constitutional courts in the political realm. In this respect, the project addresses a central ...
... categorised into six phases: the first phase covers the introductory part, the second phase covers the analysis of the cementing of theoretical base for decentralisation (1860-1871), the third phase ...
... the natural environment – the so-called “environmental rights”. In the central part (Par. 2 and 3) we will illustrate and comment on the content of the judicial decisions by the Supreme Court of Colombia ...
... are still a reality, as a margin of discretion persists for Member States, aimed at maintaining a high level of decentralisation, particularly where issues related to national policies and more (nation) ...
... The central question addressed here is to assess whether COSAC is currently structured to allow NPs to obtain more information and access to the policy and decision-making circuits at EU level and, therefore, ...
... by the central government and means the structure of competences can be modified as necessary. In this study, we will consider how federations manage, to a greater or lesser extent, regional intervention ...
... the Belgian system shows an inverse relationship. The Senate gradually turned into a house representative of the sub-states, but its powers declined inversely proportional to the level of decentralisation ...
According to many legal and political scientists the Austrian Bundesrat is generally considered to be a paradigmatic example of a politically and legally weak second chamber embedded in a strongly centralised ...
In federal and regionalised states, bicameralism constitutes shared rule between levels of governments. At the same time, second chambers serve as a safeguard protecting self-rule of decentralised governments ...
... role. It presents a federalist critique of this development, drawing on the work of Daniel Elazar, discussing the concepts of non-centralization, federal process and federal covenant in the context of ...
... the other Provinces as well, moving towards de facto asymmetry. This process has proved to be successful over the years, but recently the federal government has reacted, recentralizing some aspects of ...
... examines how subnational units in Canada actually compete with the central government, emphasizing the concrete strategies and tactics they most commonly employ to get their way in confrontations with ...
In Gauweiler v. ECB, the German Constitutional Court referred for the first time a case to the European Court of Justice. The BVerfG openly doubted the legality of the OMT program of the European Central ...
... and decentralized union. Hence, this article aims at distinguishing these concepts, as well as identifying the interlinkage and relationship that exists between them. The goal is to reduce the level of ...
... EZ economic policy by suggesting a ‘conventional’ direction to the unconventional Quantitative Easing (QE) policy of the European Central Bank (ECB). We propose an evolution for QE to tackle the shortcomings ...
16. Article 260 TFEU Sanctions in Multi-Tiered Member States
(W. Vandenbruwaene, P. Popelier and C. Janssens/Essay)
... the central and regional governments involved. After analysing the composition of the financial sanctions, we cover the involvement of subnational entities in the infringements proceedings in six tiered ...
... Austria has rather weak structures with regard to power-sharing. No wonder, given the structural bias between central state and substates, informal forces are at work in order to make up for the shortcomings ...
... relations (IGR), the traditional pattern of cooperation in both countries has been mainly limited to bilateral and ad hoc interactions between the central government and the government of each devolved ...
... from a coherent and transparent central constitutional framework which clearly defines and entrenches the subnational constitutional space and its inherent limitations. ...
... of privileges, as a specific perception of asymmetries, and as the central answer to a proposal of self-determination or institutional disobedience. Our main thesis is that a balanced proposal of democratic ...
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